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The Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention. The number of deaths which occurred when Japanese "hell ships"—unmarked transport ships in which POWs were transported in harsh conditions—were attacked by US Navy submarines was particularly high. In the late summer of 1864, a year after the Dix-Hill Cartel was suspended; Confederate officials approached Union General Benjamin Butler, Union Commissioner of Exchange, about resuming the cartel and including the black prisoners. The German Empire held 2.5 million prisoners; Russia held 2.9 million, and Britain and France held about 720,000, mostly gained in the period just before the Armistice in 1918. Controversy has arisen about how Eisenhower managed these prisoners[86] (see Other Losses). POWs were Jews."[citation needed] Another well-known example was a group of 168 Australian, British, Canadian, New Zealand and US aviators who were held for two months at Buchenwald concentration camp;[64] two of the POWs died at Buchenwald. Two possible reasons have been suggested for this incident: German authorities wanted to make an example of Terrorflieger ("terrorist aviators") and/or these aircrews were classified as spies, because they had been disguised as civilians or enemy soldiers when they were apprehended. There was however much harsh treatment of POWs in Germany, as recorded by the American ambassador to Germany (prior to America's entry into the war), James W. During these many months of trial, the early rescue of our gallant Officers & Men from the cruelties of their captivity has been uppermost in our thoughts. After the war the POWs were handed over to the Soviets, and after the POWs were transported to the USSR for forced labour. Some American prisoners were held in the prison called the Hanoi Hilton. Captives agreed not to fight until they were officially exchanged. No direct access to the POWs was provided to the International Red Cross. The privates were sent out to work. Each returning officer and man was given a message from King George V, written in his own hand and reproduced on a lithograph. The most curious case came in Russia where the Czechoslovak Legion of Czechoslovak prisoners (from the Austro-Hungarian army): they were released in 1917, armed themselves, briefly culminating into a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War. According to Edward Peterson, the U.S. POWs is EPW (Enemy Prisoner of War). During World War II, Imperial Japan and Nazi Germany (towards Soviet POWs and Western Allied commandos) were notorious for atrocities against prisoners of war. Typically, little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more likely to be spared.

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Over half the Russian losses were prisoners as a proportion of those captured, wounded or killed. In any case, the prison camps were miserable places where food rations were meager and conditions squalid. Some Soviet POWs and forced labourers whom the Germans had transported to Nazi Germany were, on their return to the USSR, treated as traitors and sent to gulag prison-camps. These are also the highest numbers in any war since the Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War entered into force on 19 June 1931. Aside from those who converted, most were ransomed or enslaved.[16][17] Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were usually either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom.[18] During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion; however if the prisoners were in the custody of a person, then the responsibility was on the individual.[19] The freeing of prisoners was highly recommended as a charitable act. This article is a list of nations with the highest number of POWs since the start of World War II, listed in descending order. It is called even today in Hungary malenkij robot—little work. Communist Vietnamese held in custody by South Vietnamese and American forces were also tortured and badly treated.[26] After the war, millions of South Vietnamese servicemen and government workers were sent to "re-education" camps where many perished. A very large number of these had been released en masse and sent across Allied lines without any food or shelter. Captured soldiers of the British Indian Army executed by the Japanese. During the 1990s Yugoslav Wars, Serb paramilitary forces supported by JNA forces killed POWs at Vukovar and Škarbrnja while Bosnian Serb forces killed POWs at Srebrenica. Germany and Italy generally treated prisoners from the British Commonwealth, France, the USA, and other western Allies in accordance with the Geneva Convention, which had been signed by these countries.[61] Consequently, western Allied officers were not usually made to work and some personnel of lower rank were usually compensated, or not required to work either. Of the remainder, the officers and non-commissioned officers were kept in camps and did not work. Many cases of POW massacres have been reported in recent times, including October 13 massacre in Lebanon by Syrian forces and June 1990 massacre in Sri Lanka. During World War I, about eight million men surrendered and were held in POW camps until the war ended. Norman Cross was intended to be a model depot providing the most humane treatment of prisoners of war. All prices displayed are subject to fluctuations and stock availability as outlined in our terms & conditions. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved.[3] The first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite, Thracian, and the Gaul (Gallus).[4] Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted; see Lycaon for example.

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A lot of these soldiers were kept in open fields in makeshift camps in the Rhine valley (Rheinwiesenlager). German soldiers were kept as forced labour for many years after the war. Despite the generous supply and quality of food, domain and range homework help some prisoners died of starvation after gambling away their rations. The regular prisoners of war were usually very poorly treated. Gerard, who published his findings in "My Four Years in Germany". Article 4 of the Third Geneva Convention protects captured military personnel, some guerrilla fighters, and certain civilians. An example of this is the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials. Treatment of the prisoners was generally poor. All commissioned officers had to write a report on the circumstances of their capture and to ensure that they had done all they could to avoid capture. Between 1941 and 1945 the Axis powers took about 5.7 million Soviet prisoners. Germans for. The French are so violating the Geneva Convention in the treatment of prisoners of war that our command is taking back prisoners sent to them. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, 20,000 Russians became prisoners. Allied prisoners of war at Aomori camp near Yokohama, Japan waving flags of the United States, Great Britain, and the Netherlands in August 1945. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed; their families would have to send to their captors large sums of wealth commensurate with the social status of the captive. Early historical narratives of captured colonial Europeans, including perspectives of literate women captured by the indigenous peoples of North America, exist in some number. The main complaints of western Allied prisoners of war in German POW camps—especially during the last two years of the war—concerned shortages of food. One American admitted "The only difference between the stalags and concentration camps was that we weren't gassed or shot in the former. While the Allied prisoners were sent home at the end of the war, the same treatment was not granted to Central Powers prisoners of the Allies and Russia, many of whom had to serve as forced labour, e.g. According to Stephen E. Ambrose, of the roughly 1,000 US combat veterans that he had interviewed, only one admitted to shooting a prisoner, saying that he "felt remorse, but would do it again".

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Even worse conditions are reported in the book "Escape of a Princess Pat" by the Canadian George Pearson. However, in the American Civil War, both sides treated captured troops as POWs, presumably out of reciprocity, although the Union regarded Confederate personnel as separatist rebels. Such narratives enjoyed some popularity, spawning a genre of the captivity narrative, and had lasting influence on the body of early American literature, most notably through the legacy of James Fenimore Cooper's Last of the Mohicans. Some American POWs claimed the Germans were victims of circumstance and did the best they could, while others accused their captors of brutalities and forced labour. The earliest known purposely built prisoner-of-war camp was established at Norman Cross, England in 1797 to house the increasing number of prisoners from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.[citation needed] The average prison population was about 5,500 men. During their visits, the delegates observed that German prisoners of war were often detained in appalling conditions. Some 930,000 more were found alive in camps after the war. András Toma, a Hungarian soldier taken prisoner by the Red Army in 1944, was discovered in a Russian psychiatric hospital in 2000. The British government went to great lengths to provide food of a quality at least equal to that available to locals. When a military member is taken prisoner, the Code of Conduct reminds them that the chain of command is still in effect (the highest ranking service member eligible for command, regardless of service branch, is in command), and requires them to support their leadership. During the 19th century, there were increased efforts to improve the treatment and processing of prisoners.

Three CAC Professors Secure Competitive Lecturer Positions

CAC celebrates having three of their current lecturers win competitive lecturer contracts.

Dr. Jennifer Myers — Film Studies (AMC)

Myers was originally hired at UWT in the Winter of 2013. She has taught courses in Media Genres, Great Directors and Introduction to Film Studies during her time at UWT and has created a course on campus called “World Film” (T FILM 387, 388) which examines major cinematic movements, trends and individual works between 1927 and 2000.

In Spring 2015, Myers was hired as a Full Time Lecturer after a competitive interview process. She will continue her job teaching and in service of the university.

In her free time she escapes to the great outdoors, skiing, fly fishing and hiking. She is a frequent flier to Oregon where she spends time with her family. Her mother suffers from acute Rheumatoid Arthritis and her niece is severely Autistic, so Myers spends as much time as she can caring for and loving them.

Carbon Challenge Tests Student Resolve

In case you missed the possible grumblings of the many carnivores of UWT transitioning to vegetarian or vegan diets this past Fall quarter, many staff, students, and faculty have since completed the Carbon Challenge, a grant receiving project as a part of UW’s Green Seed Fund.

Students, staff, faculty and even the president of the University of Washington Ana Mari Cauce herself pledged to make a change after receiving the challenge.

Since Autumn of 2014, Dr. Ellen Moore (Communication) has challenged the students in her Contemporary Environmental Issues in Media course to lose 5,000 pounds...of carbon. Moore was inspired after participating in a variant of the challenge in 2014 in competition with her fellow commissioners of the Sustainable Tacoma Commission –– “Tacoma’s Biggest Loser” –– in which she “lost” the most carbon and was crowned the winner.

CAC Students Speak Up, Saying, “No,” to Methanol Plant

A $3.4 million proposed methanol plant at the Port of Tacoma has sparked outrage and controversy in the local community.

Northwest Innovation Works (NWIW) proposed the construction of the plant, and if passed, construction will start as soon as 2017 and begin operating in 2020. Community members are concerned about the negative health and environmental factors that come along with building, and operating the plant.

Brendan Resnikoff, a senior in American Studies, believes that this poses a great risk to Tacoma and it should be evaluated based on the risk to human health, rather than the economic impact.

Tacoma community members have persistently attended hearings, and voiced their opposition to the plant.

Matt Kish: Moby-Dick in Pictures

In March, the CAC welcomed self-made artist Matt Kish to campus.

Kish talked with students and faculty about his book, Moby-Dick in Pictures: One Drawing for Every Page. What started for Kish as simple desire for a fresh, creative outlet quickly gained a following.

Kish currently works as a librarian, but never attend art school. He has always had a strong interest in art and has been published in several collaborative illustration projects. However, feeling a lack of creativity in his life, he decided embark on a new endeavor. His mission: create one picture for every page of a book that had inspired him throughout his life—Moby-Dick.

Dia de los Muertos with UWT & TAM

Every November the Tacoma Art Museum holds a Day of the Dead or Dia de los Muertos free community festival and for the fifth year in a row UWT’s Hispanic studies professors and students joined in.                      

The Day of the Dead is a time of year when the two worlds–the world of the living and the world of the dead are close enough where spirits can come back to this world and have some type of communion with them. 

“It’s important to note that not everyone believes and celebrates it the same way, but the idea is to remember family members that have died,” said Hispanic Studies professor Augustus Machine. 

This year’s 11th annual festival included “a Calavera costume contest, traditional foods, and outdoor memorials.” Community members can also set up altars remembering their lost family members, or celebrate the holiday with a themed altar. 

Arts Alive at UWT

CAC hosted several events at UWT recently that united students and invigorated the campus community.

 Bread and Puppet Theater

Last October, the Bread and Puppet Theater paid a visit to UWT. The theater is well known for performing shows that exhibit social relevant storytelling through puppetry, street and community theater, and song. The politically radical theater is based in Glover, Vermont, but tours all over the world.

CAC faculty members Beverly Naidus (Arts, Media, Culture) and Michael Kula (Writing Studies) helped organize and facilitate the visit to campus, where the group performed their Vietnam War era protest piece: Fire.

Art Students Featured at Museum of Glass

This past March, a group of students came together to build a sculpture overlooking the Thea Foss Waterway. The project, inspired by the book The Boys in the Boat, was installed at the Museum of Glass as part of the Pierce County Library’s Pierce County READS program.

The art piece, created as part of T ARTS 367 Objects and Art taught by AMC Senior Lecturer Tyler Budge, is a tribute not only to the book, but to the “boys” who hailed from University of Washington and went on to win the gold medal at the 1936 Olympics in the rowing competition against Nazi Germany.

Budge was contacted by the UW Library and asked if he would like to be a part of the presentation. He said if his class could be a part of it, then he would most definitely be willing to create a piece to commemorate the book and the story behind it. Once the decision was made, Budge tossed his syllabus aside and his class and he began the process of creating their masterpiece.

La Fountain Addresses The Drag of Poverty

In April, nationally recognized scholar Larry La Fountain presented to faculty, staff, students and Tacoma community members his work entitled “The Drag of Poverty: Erika Lopez, Holly Woodlawn, Monica Beverly Hillz, Welfare Queens.”

La Fountain, a scholar, writer, and performer, born in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and now teaching at the University of Michigan, focused on the issue of being a drag queen and the effects it could have on other social issues such as race, class, sexuality and gender. His visit to UWT was made possible through efforts of American Studies and AMC assistant professor Ed Chamberlain.

Much of La Fountain’s presentation focused on Holly Woodlawn in Andy Warhol’s film “Trash,” Monica Beverly Hillz commonly known from the reality television show RuPaul’s “Drag Race,” and Erika Lopez’s, “The Welfare Queen.”

Pulitzer Prize Winner Speaks at UWT

In April, Pulitzer Prize winner for feature writing and author of Enrique’s Journey, Sonia Nazario, spent a day at UWT, interacting with students and faculty and giving a lecture, all as part of the acclaimed UW Walker-Ames Lecture Series.

Enrique’s Journey is the story of one Honduran boy looking for his mother, after she left her starving family to find work in the United States.

“Braving unimaginable peril, often clinging to the sides and tops of freight trains, Enrique travels through hostile worlds full of thugs, bandits, and corrupt cops. But he pushes forward, relying on his wit, courage, hope, and the kindness of strangers,” according to enriquesjourney.com.

She echoed her discussion from her book of her three-month journey made on top of trains across South America to chronicle the story of Enrique, and how her experiences changed her view of unaccompanied, undocumented child migrants.

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